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1902 Nile Agreement

In the hydropolitics context, while Ethiopia in the first half of the 20th century was able to drive its own canoe, a mixture of factors acted together to take any reasonable perspective in the use of Nile water resources in its jurisdiction. I affirm that the 1902 Anglo-Ethiopian Treaty on the Blue Nile and the immediate flow of negotiations on the granting of concessions from Lake Tana had a detrimental effect on Ethiopia`s legal position and sovereign interests. Ethiopia`s imperial fluctuation was annoying and British hegemonic conceptions at the time were too inclined to Sudan and Egypt. As a result, the post-1950 period witnessed a decrease in the influence of Ethiopia`s hydrolelale posture and the organization of deeply rooted perceptions of landowners along the downstream Nile. While Egypt is heavily dependent on the Nile, there are factors that can lead to conflicts over the distribution of the Nile`s water supply. Egypt, for example, has such a dependent agricultural economy. In addition, Egypt is already dependent on virtual water imports, a strategy that could lead Egypt to attempt future water conflicts. [4] Ethiopia`s water flows supply about 86 per cent of the Nile`s waters. Egypt has historically threatened Ethiopia and Tanzania to wage war on the Nile. Egypt army Somali separatist rebels in Ethiopia during and since the Somali invasion of Ethiopia in the 1970s. [5] Over the years, the states concerned have concluded agreements and treaties to control conflicts.

According to the scientists who studied this agreement, Ethiopia has a natural and valid right over the waters of the Nile. The rights of Ethiopia «… in a certain proportion of the waters of its own zone are indisputable… This would be enough to invalidate the agreement, which has no equivalent with Ethiopia. When the League of Nations requested a statement from the British and Italian authorities, they challenged the questioning of Ethiopia`s sovereignty over Lake Tana. [9] Despite this, there was no explicit mechanism for implementing the agreement. A reliable and self-imposed mechanism, capable of protecting the property rights of each interest group, is essential if the principle of sustainable international water development is to be applied economically and environmentally. «To the British government: the British government has already started negotiations with the Ethiopian government on its proposal and we had imagined that the negotiations with us would have been concluded, whether this proposal came into force or not; we never thought that the British government would reach an agreement with another government on our sea. The 1902 treaty was often referred to as a treaty between Ethiopia and Egypt that dealt with the use of Nile waters. It should be noted that such a treaty did not exist between Ethiopia and Egypt.

In fact, the treaty that was discussed was between Ethiopia and Great Britain. At the time, Egypt was a protectorate of the British Empire and the Egyptian government of the day could not enter into international treaties. The Anglo-Ethiopian Treaty of 1902 was an agreement between Britain on behalf of Sudan (under British rule) and Ethiopia.

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